What are Nitrates and Nitrites?

Testing with EcoVisor F4 (Nitrate Tester, Dosimeter, EMF meter, TDS meter)

Nitrates and nitrites can be categorized into inorganic and organic forms based on their chemical structure.
There are similarities and differences between these two chemical forms that affect their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and their subsequent biologic effects in humans. This artical  will focus on inorganic nitrates.

Inorganic Nitrates and Nitrites

Inorganic nitrate (NO3–) and nitrite (NO2–) are water soluble (as a result of their interaction with the positively charged portions of polar water molecules)

Structures of Nitrate and Nitrite Ions
Structures of Nitrate and Nitrite Ions

and commonly exist as salts of nitric acid and nitrous acid, respectively. They are often bound to a metal cation such as Na+ or K+ and occur naturally through the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen as part of the environmental nitrogen cycle (the cyclic movement of nitrogen in different chemical forms from the environment, to organisms, and then back to the environment as illustrated).

Environmental Nitrogen Cycle
Environmental Nitrogen Cycle

Inorganic nitrites are also produced endogenously through oxidation of nitrous oxide (NO) formed from the enzymatic degradation of L-arginine and through the reduction of nitrate with xanthine oxidoreductase.

Organic Nitrates and Nitrites

The organic forms of nitrates and nitrites are more complex and most are synthesized medicinal products (except ethyl nitrite). Organic nitrates are small non-polar hydrocarbon chains attached to a nitrooxy-radical (-ONO2; -ONO for amyl and ethyl nitrite). The addition of aliphatic or aromatic groups of variable length and volume affect the lipophilic properties of these molecules. It has been suggested that for some molecules, the greater the number of –ONO2 groups, the greater its potency; (the potency being dependent on the molecule’s lipophilicity).

Key Points

  • Nitrates and Nitrites exist in organic and inorganic
    forms.
  • The chemical form affects the pharmacokinetic and
    pharmacodynamic properties of nitrates and
    nitrates.
  • Inorganic nitrates and nitrites are generally more
    water soluble than organic nitrates and nitrates.
  • Inorganic nitrates and nitrites are produced
    endogenously and exogenously.
  • Organic nitrates and nitrites are mostly synthesized
    medicinal products.
  • Organic nitrates and nitrites are generally more
    complex and lipophilic than inorganic nitrates and nitrites.
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DID YOU KNOW?!

Lumin UVC Disinfection

Lumin UVC works on multiple household items!

Although a great way to disinfect CPAP masks and water chambers, the Lumin is not limited to disinfecting only CPAP items. Any non-living item which can fit inside the Lumin tray can be disinfected. This includes common items such as dentures, toothbrushes, hearing aids, small children toys and many more!

Lumin UVC sanitizes personal items!
Kids toys, N95 masks, Gloves, Glasses, Cell phones, Shoe covers, Plastic hats, Toothbrushes, Nebulizers, Pens, Money, Credit cards, Sex toys etc.

What can you put in the Lumin UVC?

RemoteHearing AidPacifiers
Tooth BrushPensDentures
PhoneSwim gogglesEyeglasses
CPAP MaskCPAP TubingToys
And many more!

You can use the Lumin UVC to disinfect any required item that safely fits into the drawer!

The Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Machine

What is Lumin UVC Sanitizing System - Lumin CPAP Interface and Accessories Cleaner?
Lumin UVC Sanitizing System – Lumin CPAP Interface and Accessories Cleaner
2 Year Warranty Lumin UVC
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Sleep Tips and Advice

Sleep Tips and Advice

Do you like to have a weekend lie-in or a nightcap before going to bed? These habits could actually be harming your sleep.

Relax your mind

  • Simple breathing exercises can help. Breathe, using your abdomen not your chest, through your nose for three seconds, then breathe out for three seconds. Pause for three seconds before breathing in again. Practise this for ten minutes at night (five minutes is better than nothing).
  • Some people find that lavender oil, valerian or other herbs help them to sleep.
  • If you still have problems, you could try massage, aromatherapy, or even acupuncture.
  • If you still find yourself tossing and turning, abandon the bedroom and find something enjoyable and absorbing to do. Jigsaws are perfect. Don’t go back to bed until you begin to feel sleepy.
Relax your Mind
Relax your Mind

Exercise regularly

  • Regular exercise is a great way to improve your sleep. Just be careful not to do it close to bed time as exercise produces stimulants that stop the brain from relaxing quickly.
  • This being the case, exercising in the morning is an excellent way to wake up the body. Going for a run or doing some aerobics releases stimulants into the body, which perks you up.
  • If you are injured or disabled, you can still benefit from exercise. Check out disability exercise tips.
Exercise regularly
Exercise regularly

Create a calm bedroom environment

  • Your bedroom should be for sleep only. Avoid turning it into an entertainment centre with televisions, computers and stereos.
  • Two thirds of children have a computer, games machine or TV in their bedroom and could be losing out on sleep as a result.

Avoid alcohol

  • It’s fine to have a nightcap, but too much alcohol can make you restless. Alcohol is also a diuretic, which means it encourages you to urinate (never welcomed during the night).
  • Drinking is also more likely to lead to snoring, which can restrict airflow into the lungs. This reduces oxygen in your blood which disturbs your sleep and contributes to your hangover.

Avoid caffeine

  • Caffeine is a stimulant which can stay in your system for many hours. So avoid sources of caffeine such as coffee, chocolate, cola drinks and non-herbal teas.

Watch what you eat

  • Eating a large heavy meal too close to bedtime will interfere with your sleep.
  • Spicy or fatty foods may cause heartburn, which leads to difficulty in falling asleep and discomfort throughout the night.
  • Foods containing tyramine (bacon, cheese, ham, aubergines, pepperoni, raspberries, avocado, nuts, soy sauce, red wine) might keep you awake at night. Tyramine causes the release of norepinephrine, a brain stimulant.
  • If you get the munchies close to bedtime, eat something that triggers the hormone serotonin, which makes you sleepy. Carbohydrates such as bread or grain, cereal will do the trick.
Cereals - Watch what you eat
Cereals – Watch what you eat

Set a regular bedtime and wake up time

  • Create a habit of going to bed and waking up at the same time each day, even on weekends. This helps anchor your body clock to these times. Resisting the urge for a lie-in can pay dividends in alertness.
  • If you feel you haven’t slept well, resist the urge to sleep in longer than normal; getting up on schedule keeps your body in its normal wake-up routine.
  • Remember, even after only four hours, the brain has gained many of the important benefits of sleep.

It’s only natural

  • Most of us have a natural dip in alertness between 2 – 4pm.
  • A 15 minute nap when you’re tired can be a very effective way of staying alert throughout the day. Avoid napping for longer than 20 minutes, after which you will enter deep sleep and feel even worse when you wake up.

See a doctor if your problem continues

Ask us about FREE screening
Ask us about FREE screening:

If you have trouble falling asleep night after night, or if you always feel tired the next day, snore, or stop breathing during sleep you might have a sleep disorder. It is advisable to seek more advice from your doctor. Most sleep disorders can be treated effectively.

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    Sleep Apnea

    Sleep Apnea

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing pauses can last from a few seconds to minutes. They may occur 30 times or more an hour.

    Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep
    Sleep Advice – improve your quality of life, organic solutions

    Sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep disorder. It causes your airway to collapse or become blocked during sleep. Normal breathing starts again with a snort or choking sound. People with sleep apnea often snore loudly. However, not everyone who snores has sleep apnea.

    You are more at risk for sleep apnea if you are overweight, male, or have a family history or small airways. Children with enlarged tonsils may also have it.

    Doctors diagnose sleep apnea based on medical and family histories, a physical exam, and sleep study results.

    A person may not be aware that his/her sleep is interrupted throughout the night due to snoring or obstructions. This is because he/she may not be fully conscious during these occurrences. However if a person feels drowsiness during the day, he/she should consult a doctor about getting a sleep study. People with sleep apnea are at higher risk for car crashes, work-related accidents, and other medical problems. If you have it, it is important to get treatment. Lifestyle changes, mouthpieces and surgery may help treat sleep apnea in many people if their diagnosis is mild. But if the diagnosis is moderate to severe, CPAP is the gold standard of treatment for optimal results.

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    What are Routes of Exposure to Nitrates and Nitrites?

    Testing with EcoVisor F4 (Nitrate Tester, Dosimeter, EMF meter, TDS meter)

    The primary routes of exposure to nitrates and nitrites may differ depending on occupational and non­ occupational factors. Non-occupational factors may include:

    • Age,
    • Diet,
    • Medications,
    • Hobbies (such as gardening, arc welding, etc.),
    • History of inhalational drug use,
    • Source of drinking/cooking water and how it is supplied,
    • Outdoor activities,
    • The chemical form of the nitrates and nitrites.
    Routes of Exposure to Nitrates and Nitrites
    Routes of Exposure to Nitrates and Nitrites

    Occupational and Paraoccupational Exposures

    Occupational exposure occurs primarily through the inhalation and dermal routes. Explosive and fertilizer industry workers may be exposed to nitrate through inhalation of dusts containing nitrate salts. Dusts can also dissolve in sweat exposing skin to concentrated solutions of the salts. Farmers may experience periodic exposures depending on their activities, especially with regard to the handling of fertilizers. Exposure of family members to nitrates from dusts brought home on work clothes has been reported.

    Non­-occupational Exposures

    The primary route of non-occupational exposure is ingestion of water or foodstuffs that contain high levels of nitrates or nitrites. Inhalation exposures may occur from inhalant drug use and dermal exposures may occur from some topical medications. These would be special instances and not the primary routes of exposure for the general population.

    Key Points

    • Primary occupational routes of exposure to nitrates and nitrites include inhalation and dermal routes.
    • The primary route of exposure to nitrates and nitrites for the general population is ingestion.
    • Inhalation and dermal exposures have been reported in non-occupational settings under certain circumstances, but are not the primary routes of exposure for the general population.
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    Where are Nitrates and Nitrites found?

    Testing with EcoVisor F4 (Nitrate Tester, Dosimeter, EMF meter, TDS meter)

    Understanding the environmental fate of nitrates and nitrites may help pinpoint potential sources of exposure. This would be important in assessment of patient exposure risk, prevention and mitigation of nitrate / nitrite overexposure and in the prevention of adverse health effects from exposure.

    Environmental Nitrogen Cycle

    In general, the following describes the activity of nitrates and nitrites in the environment. Microbial action in soil or water decomposes wastes containing organic nitrogen into ammonia, which is then oxidized to nitrite and nitrate.

    Environmental Nitrogen Cycle
    Environmental Nitrogen Cycle
    • Because nitrite is easily oxidized to nitrate, nitrate is the compound predominantly found in groundwater and surface waters.
    • Contamination with nitrogen-containing fertilizers (e.g. potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate), or animal or human organic wastes, can raise the concentration of nitrate in water.
    • Nitrate-containing compounds in the soil are generally water soluble and readily migrate with groundwater.

    Water Contamination

    Shallow, rural domestic wells are those most likely to be contaminated with nitrates, especially in areas where nitrogen-based fertilizers are widely used.

    Water Contamination
    Water Contamination
    • Approximately 15 percent of Americans rely on their own private drinking water supplies which are not subject to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, although some state and local governments do set guidelines to protect users of these wells.
    • In agricultural areas, nitrogen-based fertilizers are a major source of contamination for shallow groundwater aquifers that provide drinking water.
    • A recent United States Geological Survey study showed that 7 percent of 2,388 domestic wells and about 3 percent of 384 public-supply wells nationwide were contaminated with nitrate levels above the EPA drinking water standard of 10 parts per million (ppm) or 10 mg/L.
    • Elevated concentrations were most common in domestic wells that were shallow (less than 100 feet deep) and located in agricultural areas because of relatively large nitrogen sources, including septic systems, fertilizer use, and livestock.
    • Although suppliers of public water sources are required to monitor nitrate concentrations regularly, few private rural wells are routinely tested for nitrates.
    • During spring melt or drought conditions, both domestic wells and public water systems using surface water can show increased nitrate levels.
    • Drinking water contaminated by boiler fluid additives may also contain increased levels of nitrites.
    • Mixtures of nitrates / nitrites with other well contaminants such as pesticides and VOCs have been reported.

    Food Contamination

    Nitrate and nitrite overexposure has been reported via
    ingestion of foods containing high levels of nitrates and nitrites. Inorganic nitrates and nitrites present in contaminated soil and water can be taken up by plants, especially green leafy vegetables and beet root.

    Food Contamination Nitrate in Vegetables
    Food Contamination Nitrate in Vegetables
    • Contaminated foodstuffs, prepared baby foods, and sausage / meats preserved with nitrates and nitrites have caused overexposure in children.
    • Although vegetables are seldom a source of acute toxicity in adults, they account for about 80% of the nitrates in a typical human diet.
    • Celery, spinach lettuce, red beetroot and other vegetables have naturally greater nitrate content than other plant foods do.
    • The remainder of the nitrate in a typical diet comes from drinking water (about 21%) and from meat and meat products (about 6%) in which sodium nitrate is used as a preservative and color- enhancing agent.
    • For infants who are bottle-fed, however, the major source of nitrate exposure is from contaminated drinking water used to dilute formula.
    • Bottled water is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a food. It is monitored for nitrates, nitrites and total nitrates / nitrites.

    Nitrate Content of Selected Vegetables

    VegetableNitrate contentmg / 100g fresh weight
    Celery, lettuce, red beetroot, spinachVery High (> 2500)
    Parsley, leek, endive, Chinese cabbage, fennelHigh (100-250)
    Cabbage, dill, turnipMedium (50-100)
    Broccoli, carrot, cauliflower, cucumber, pumpkinLow (20-50)
    Artichoke, asparagus, eggplant, garlic, onion, green bean, mushroom, pea, pepper, potato, summer squash, sweet potato, tomato, watermelonVery Low (<20)

    Other Sources of Exposure

    Nitrate or nitrite exposure can occur from certain medications and volatile nitrite inhalants.

    Nitrate or nitrite exposure from certain medications
    Nitrate or nitrite exposure from certain medications

    Accidental and inadvertent exposures to nitrites as well as ingestion in suicide attempts have been reported.

    Deliberate abuse of volatile nitrites (amyl, butyl, and isobutyl nitrites) frequently occurs. Amyl nitrite (nicknamed by some as “poppers”) is used commercially as a vasodilator and butyl / isobutyl nitrites can be found in products such as room air fresheners.

    Fatalities have been reported in adults exposed to nitrates in burn therapy; however infants and children are especially susceptible to adverse health effects from exposure to topical silver nitrate used in burn therapy.

    Other medications implicated in methemoglobinemia include:

    • Quinone derivatives (antimalarials),
    • Nitroglycerine,
    • Bismuth subnitrite (antidiarrheal),
    • Ammonium nitrate (diuretic),
    • Amyl and sodium nitrites (antidotes for cyanide and hydrogen sulfide poisoning),
    • Isosorbide dinitrate/tetranitrates (vasodilators used in coronary artery disease therapy),
    • Benzocaine (local anesthetic), and
    • Dapsone (antibiotic).

    Other possible sources of exposure include ammonium nitrate found in cold packs and nitrous gases used in arc welding.

    An ethyl nitrite folk remedy called “sweet spirits of nitre” has caused fatalities.

    Key Points

    • Shallow, rural domestic wells are those most likely to be contaminated with nitrates, especially in areas where nitrogen based fertilizers are in widespread use.
    • Other nitrate sources in well water include seepage from septic sewer systems and animal wastes.
    • Foodstuffs high in nitrates, home prepared baby foods, and sausage/meats preserved with nitrates and nitrites have caused overexposure in children.
    • Nitrate or nitrite exposure can occur from certain medications and volatile nitrite inhalants.
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    Lumin UVC Sanitizing System – Lumin CPAP Interface and Accessories Cleaner

    What is Lumin UVC Sanitizing System - Lumin CPAP Interface and Accessories Cleaner?

    The Lumin UV Light Sanitizing Device from 3B Medical is a safe and effective alternative to harsher, more expensive devices on the market today used to sanitize HOME & Medical equipment. In other words the Lumin UVC uses a powerful amount of UV light contained inside of a fail-safe chamber to kill bacteria in just five minutes.

    Lumin UVC Sanitizing System - Lumin CPAP Interface and Accessories Cleaner
    Lumin UVC Sanitizing System – Lumin CPAP Interface and Accessories Cleaner

    Lumin UVC – Disinfection & Cleaning

    What is Lumin UVC?

    Lumin is the easiest and fastest way to clean a CPAP mask and accessories. At first Lumin works with a cleaning cycle time of 5 minutes. Equally important NO harmful ozone, and a 99.9% kill rate for harmful bacteria, viruses, mold and fungus. It is the ideal high margin retail accessory for a DME servicing CPAP patients.

    DISINFECTION – Cleaning

    Quick 5 Min cleaning – Interface Disinfection

    Lumin UVC works by emitting high energy light within a narrow spectrum referred to as UV-C. The device relies on a low-pressure, mercury-arc germicidal lamp designed to produce the highest amounts of UV light – where 90% of energy is generated around 254nm. Especially the dose of UV-C emitted in one 5-minute cycle is sufficient to kill most bacteria and mold on a surface.

    RELIABILITY

    UV Light kills 99% of Bacteria

    UV light will disinfect up to 99% of harmful bacteria, pathogens, and fungi that can cause infection and illness. Lumin UV light is also the safest disinfection option on the market, there is NO HARMFUL OZONE.

    SAFETY

    Safe and Easy to Use

    The 5-minute ozone FREE cleaning cycle with no need for water or harmful chemicals. Specifically makes Lumin the safest and easiest choice for interface and accessory cleaning.

    ECO-FRIENDLY

    No Harmful Ozone

    The use of UV-C is environmentally friendly, leaves no residue or toxic gases or chemicals. For example UV-C systems are currently in use to disinfect ambulances, emergency service vehicles and other high touch areas.

    AFFORDABLE

    Reasonably Priced

    Above all a fair and reasonable price of a Lumin UVC is fair to patients. One of our most popular items. Perfect for everyday use. Exceptional quality and choice. Lumin CPAP mask cleaner and sanitizer is a clever financial investment for anybody who needs to maintain CPAP devices clean and sanitized. In conclusion the device features an appropriate cost, it is easy to run and requires no maintenance whatsoever.

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